In a recently published study, Dr Scientific reportResearchers have examined the role of specific gut microbes in the secretion of cytokines Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs)Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29 cells and their contribution to the pathogenesis of asthma.
Study: Potential immunomodulatory role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of asthma: an in vitro study. Image credit: Rybalchenko Nadezhda/Shutterstock.com
Asthma is a very common lung disease that causes airway obstruction and chronic inflammation, typically characterized by cough, shortness of breath, chest tightness, and difficulty breathing. It affects more than 200 million people worldwide and contributes significantly to the economic health burden.
The multifactorial process of asthma is associated with chronic inflammation of the airways that causes hyper-reactivity in the bronchioles. A genetic predisposition, environmental factors, diet, and viral infections during childhood are some of the major risk factors for asthma.
Growing evidence shows that the gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease and is involved in fundamental processes of immune response, defense against pathogens, nutrient absorption and vitamin production.
Microbiological stimulation during the neonatal period is thought to play an important role in the maturation of gastrointestinal lymph tissue, antibody diversity in the gastrointestinal tract, and production of immunoglobulin A.
Gut microbiome dysbiosis in early childhood may influence immune maturation, so understanding the role of specific gut microbes in the pathogenesis of asthma is important.
About the study
In the current study, the researchers examined the effect of lysate Ruminococcus albus, Parabacteroid distasonis, Clostridium perfringensAnd Bacteroides vulgatus On the secretion of selected cytokines by PBMCs, HT-29 cells and MDMs.
EEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) HT-29 cells, MDM and PBMCs were stimulated and incubated with lysate to analyze cytokine secretion. And. Albus, P. distasonis, c. PerfringensAnd B. vulgatus.
Previous studies have reported that stool samples from newborns at high risk of developing asthma showed lower strains Faecalibacterium, Lachnospira, RothiaAnd Veillonella.
Moreover, newborns with an increased abundance Bacteroides And Streptococcus species and a low abundance Ruminococcus gnavus And Bifidobacterium Species in faecal samples were at higher risk of asthma and atopy.
The study also found that decreased intestinal abundance of Ackermansia, Bifidobacteria and Faecalibacterium species increased the risk of asthma in children.
Given the evidence linking changes in gut microbial abundance to asthma risk, the researchers sought to analyze which lysates from And. Albus, P. distasonis, c. PerfringensAnd B. vulgatus The secretion of interleukins (IL) 1β, IL-10, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) was affected.
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness that occurs during asthma often has a variable pathogenetic basis. Chronic inflammation contributes significantly to airway hyperresponsiveness in the early stages of asthma, while airway tissue remodeling is largely responsible for the later stages.
Bronchial structural cells release inflammatory mediators such as cytokines and chemokines necessary for the amplification of inflammation, and the epithelium of bronchioles is actively involved in asthma pathogenesis.
Interferon production by bronchial epithelial cells decreases as a result of interaction with infectious agents in asthmatic patients, reducing the immune response against these agents.
The results of the present study showed that lysates from certain intestinal bacteria can modulate the secretion of inflammatory mediators such as IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β and TNF-α.
lysates from that indicated in the results c. PerfringensAnd B. vulgatus The secretion of IL-1β by MDMs was significantly reduced at the 400 microgram dose. In addition, secretion of IL-6 by MDMs and PBMCs was significantly higher P. distasonis And c. Perfringens.
Lysates from P. distasonis, c. PerfringensAnd B. vulgatus Increased secretion of IL-10 by PBMCs at 100 microg. On the contrary, from those P. distasonis, c. Perfringens, B. vulgatusAnd And. Albus induced a corresponding increase in IL-10 secretion by MDMs.
Moreover, lysates from B. vulgatus And P. distasonis Increased secretion of TNF-α by MDMs and HT-29 cells was found.
Overall, results from lysates are reported And. Albus, P. distasonis, c. PerfringensAnd B. vulgatus can increase the secretion of cytokines such as IL-10, IL-6, and TNF-α by PBMCs, HT-29 cells, and MDMs.
Altered secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the action of these bacterial lysates may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma.