In a recently published study, Dr International Journal of Molecular SciencesA team of Polish researchers conducted a review to understand the connection between the gut microbiome and skin diseases and examined the use of probiotics to correct gut microbiome dysbiosis as a treatment for various skin diseases.
Study: The role of the gut microbiome and microbial dysbiosis in common skin diseasess Image credit: Kateryna Kon/Shutterstock
Although skin diseases are largely non-fatal, they contribute significantly to the global public health burden despite the impact of skin diseases on mental health and the impact on quality of work and daily life due to discomfort and social stigma. Genetic and environmental factors are often the cause of skin diseases. However, increasing research suggests that the gut microbiome, which plays an important role in the progression of a variety of diseases, also contributes to the development and progression of skin diseases.
Nucleic acid sequencing has been widely used to explore bacterial genes, to understand the composition, abundance and diversity of the microbiome, and to understand the major role that the gut microbiome plays in human health and homeostasis. Gut microbiome dysbiosis has been shown to significantly influence the development and progression of various chronic diseases. Determining the contribution of microbiome dysbiosis to the pathogenesis and progression of skin diseases may help to find novel therapeutic avenues for skin diseases.
Gut microbiome function
In the current review, researchers discuss the assembly and composition of the gut microbiome and its role in human health. The review reported that the gut microbiome consists of more than 1014 The microorganism, cumulatively, weighs about the same as a human liver. Furthermore, more than three million bacterial genes from the gut microbiome are responsible for the synthesis of numerous metabolites, some of which are essential for human health.
Studies examining the assembly and composition of the gut microbiome largely indicate that the gut microbiota is acquired during the early stages of prenatal development and that the microbiome profile is established by age five or six, continuing into adulthood. Bacteridates And Firmicutes The two most dominant taxa of bacteria in the gut microbiome of healthy humans have distinct differences in microflora proportions and compositions.
Antibiotic use, genetics, diet and lifestyle factors such as smoking, stress, inadequate sleep, exercise and body mass index affect the gut microbiota profile. Diets composed mainly of fat, processed foods and carbohydrates and low in fiber skew the gut microbiome toward an inflammatory profile.
Skin diseases and the gut microbiome
The review includes a detailed examination of the role of the gut microbiome in numerous skin diseases, including atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and alopecia areata. Studies have shown that the chronic nature of atopic dermatitis, especially pruritus despite medication, significantly reduces quality of life and is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety. The review found that gut microbiome dysbiosis is strongly associated with atopic dermatitis.
Results from genome-wide association studies showed that bacterial taxa viz Bifidobacteriaceae, Bifidobacterial, Bifidobacterium, Christensenellaceae, Clostridia, MollicutesAnd Tenerticutes showed a negative correlation with the risk of atopic dermatitis, while Anarotruncus, BacteroidesAnd Bacteroides Demonstrate a positive relationship.
Furthermore, in cases where atopic dermatitis developed in adulthood, the alpha diversity of the gut microbiome was lower. Species richness and proportions of taxa with and without gastrointestinal symptoms also differed in patients with atopic dermatitis. In addition, decreased alpha diversity was also associated with a higher risk of atopic dermatitis, severity, remission, and age of disease onset.
Genomic testing of stool samples from psoriasis patients found less species diversity in their gut microbiome and significant dysbiosis compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the microbiome of psoriasis patients and healthy controls is included Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, FirmicutesAnd Bacteridatesabundance Proteobacteria And Bacteridates was low enough, and that Actinobacteria And Firmicutes Psoriasis patients had significantly higher gut microbiomes.
The review also discusses the results of numerous studies on the gut microbiome and the association between the development, symptoms, severity, and progression of acne and alopecia areata.
In summary, the review examined numerous studies investigating the connection between the gut microbiome and skin diseases such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne, and alopecia areata. Findings indicate that gut microbiome dysbiosis at different stages of life is significantly associated with the development, severity and progression of skin diseases.
Additionally, although research on the use of probiotics to alleviate the symptoms of various skin diseases is limited, the review found that some studies found positive results, highlighting the need to further explore the potential use of probiotics as a therapeutic avenue for skin diseases. .
- Ryguła, I., Pikiewicz, W., Grabarek, BO, Wójcik, M., & Kaminiow, K. (2024). The role of the gut microbiome and microbial dysbiosis in common skin diseases. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 25(4). DOI: 10.3390/ijms25041984, https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/25/4/1984